Packet scheduling algorithms in LTE systems
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There has been a huge increase in demand towards improving the Quality of Service (QoS) of wireless services. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a development of the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the aim to meet the needs of International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Some of its aspects are highlighted as follows: increase in data rate, scalable bandwidth, reduced latency and increase in coverage and capacity that result in better quality of service in communication. LTE employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) to simultaneously deliver multimedia services at a high speed rate. Packet switching is used by LTE to support different media services. To meet the QoS requirements for LTE networks, packet scheduling has been employed. Packet scheduling decides when and how different packets are delivered to the receiver. It is responsible for smart user packet selection to allocate radio resources appropriately. Therefore, packet scheduling should be cleverly designed to achieve QoS that is similar to fixed line services. eNodeB is a node in LTE network which is responsible for radio resource management that involves packet scheduling. There are two main categories of application in multimedia services: RT (Real Time) and NRT (None Real Time) services. RT services are either delay sensitive (e.g. voice over IP), loss sensitive (e.g. Buffered Video) or both (delay &loss sensitive) for example video conferencing. Best effort users are an example of NRT services that do not have exact requisites and have been allocated to spare resources. Reaching higher throughput has sometimes resulted in unfair allocation to users who are located far from the base station or users who suffer from bad channel conditions. Therefore, a sufficient trade-off between throughput and fairness is essential. The scarce bandwidth, fading radio channels and the QoS requirement of the users, makes resource allocation a demanding issue. Different scheduling approaches have been suggested for different service demands described briefly throughout the thesis. Initially, a comprehensive literature review of existing work on the packet scheduling topic has been accomplished in this thesis to realize the characteristics of packet scheduling and the resource allocation for the wireless network. Many packet scheduling algorithms developed to provide satisfactory QoS for multimedia services in downlink LTE systems. Several algorithms considered in this thesis include time and frequency domain algorithms and their way of approach has been investigated. The next objective of this thesis is to improve the performance of packet scheduling in LTE downlink systems. A new packet scheduling algorithm has been introduced in this thesis. A study on VoLTE (Voice over LTE), video streaming and best effort traffic under three different scheduling algorithms has been conducted. Heterogeneous traffic based on precise modelling of packets has been used in the simulation. The main resource allocation and assignment technique used in this work namely Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation scheme is shown to provide a solution to solve the cross layer optimisation problem. It depends on Channel Quality Information (CQI) and has been broadly investigated for single carrier and multicarrier wireless networks. The problem is based on the maximisation of average utility functions. Different scheduling algorithms in this method consider to be utility functions. The throughput, fairness and Packet Loss Ratio have been considered as the requirements for examining the performance of algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm significantly increases the performance of streaming and best effort users in terms of PLR and throughput. Fairness has also been improved with less computational complexity compared to previous algorithms that have been introduced in this thesis.
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