Scaling analysis and numerical simulation of natural convection from a duct

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Journal Article
Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications, 2017, 72 (5), pp. 355 - 371
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© 2017 Taylor & Francis. Natural convection from a duct into the quiescent ambient is investigated. Heat transfer and dynamics of natural convection from the duct are discussed using a simple scaling analysis and the corresponding scaling relations are obtained. Additionally, numerical simulation for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from 100 to 106 and the duct aspect ratios from 0 to 4 with the Prandtl number of 0.71 (air) is performed. The development of natural convection may approach a steady or an unsteady state in a fully developed stage, which is determined by the Rayleigh number and the duct aspect ratio. It is demonstrated that heat transfer of natural convection is improved by the duct for high Rayleigh numbers but depressed for low Rayleigh numbers. The scaling relations of natural convection from the duct have been validated in comparison with numerical results. The scaling predictions are consistent with the numerical results. Furthermore, the formulae of the Nusselt number, the Reynolds number, and the flow rate quantifying natural convection from the duct are presented.
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