Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in intensive care unit patients: A study in Vietnam

Publication Type:
Journal Article
BMC Infectious Diseases, 2017, 17 (1)
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© The Author(s). 2017. Background: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major concern in developing countries. The present study sought to define the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Methods: Between November 2014 and September 2015, we enrolled 220 patients (average age ~ 71 yr) who were admitted to ICU in a major tertiary hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Data concerning demographic characteristics and clinical history were collected from each patient. The Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method was used to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Antimicrobial resistance was commonly found in ceftriaxone (88%), ceftazidime (80%), ciprofloxacin (77%), cefepime (75%), levofloxacin (72%). Overall, the rate of antimicrobial resistance to any drug was 93% (n = 153/164), with the majority (87%) being resistant to at least 2 drugs. The three commonly isolated microorganisms were Acinetobacter (n = 75), Klebsiella (n = 39), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 29). Acinetobacter baumannii were virtually resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacilin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. High rates ( > 70%) of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella were also observed. Conclusion: These data indicated that critically ill patients on ventilator in Vietnam were at disturbingly high risk of antimicrobial resistance. The data also imply that these Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug resistance pose serious therapeutic problems in ICU patients. A concerted and systematic effort is required to rapidly identify high risk patients and to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries.
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