Monitoring of nocturnal central sleep apnea in Heart failure patients using noncontact respiratory differences

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Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2017, pp. 1534 - 1538
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© 2017 IEEE. Monitoring of respiration patterns allows the early detection of various breathing disorders and may better identify those at risk for adverse acute outcomes in a variety of clinical settings. In this paper, we report on the use of SleepMinder (SM), a bedside non-contact Doppler-based biomotion recording sensor, to monitor remotely the nocturnal respiration patterns of 50 patients with systolic Heart failure (HF) while undergoing a lab based Polysomnography (PSG) test. A new respiration rate (RR) monitoring algorithm was developed based on the collected overnight radar signals. Two schemes of RR scoring were utilized: respiratory rate count (RRC) and instantaneous respiratory rates (IRR). Analysis of SM vs. PSG revealed that the mean/median IRR scored by SM is highly correlated with that scored on the nasal flow/effort signals from the corresponding PSG studies on all patients, with a significant correlation coefficient of 0.98 (average absolute difference of 0.31 breaths/min), and 0.97 (p<0.01, average absolute difference of 0.38 breaths/min) for the median and mean of RR respectively. Our experimental results also show that the difference between the RR estimations from IRR and RRC schemes can be utilized to identify central sleep apnea (CSA)/Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) sections without additional apnea detection modules. As a result, with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 88% respectively, and an accuracy of 86%, our CSA/CSR screener, plugged with our RR estimation, can play an important role in the remote management of HF patients.
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