Persistence of Excess Mortality Following Individual Nonhip Fractures: A Relative Survival Analysis

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Journal Article
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2018, 103 (9), pp. 3205 - 3214
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© 2018 Endocrine Society. Context: Little is known about long-term excess mortality following fragility nonhip fractures. Objective: The study aimed to determine which fracture was associated with excess mortality and for how long the postfracture excess mortality persisted. Design, Setting, and Patients: This nationwide registry-based follow-up study included all individuals in Denmark aged 50+ years who first experienced fragility fractures in 2001 and were followed up for up to 10 years for their mortality risk. Main Outcome Measure: The contribution of fracture to mortality at precise postfracture time intervals was examined using relative survival analysis, accounting for time-related mortality changes in the background population. Results: There were 21,123 women (aged 72 ± 13 years) and 9481 men (aged 67 ± 12 years) with an incident fragility fracture in 2001, followed by 10,668 and 4745 deaths, respectively. Excess mortality was observed following all proximal and lower leg fractures. The majority of deaths occurred within the first year after fracture, and thereafter excess mortality gradually declined. Hip fractures were associated with the highest excess mortality (33% and 20% at 1 year after fracture in men and women, respectively). One-year excess mortality after fracture of a femur or pelvis was 20% to 25%; vertebrae, 10%; humerus, rib, or clavicle, 5% to 10%; and lower leg, 3%. A significant although smaller excess mortality was still observed until 10 years for hip fractures and ∼5 years after femur, other proximal, and lower leg fractures. Conclusion: This study highlights the important contribution of a wide variety of fragility fractures to long-term excess mortality and thus the potential for benefit from early intervention.
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