Does particulate matter modify the short-term association between heat waves and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in greater Sydney, Australia?
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019, 16 (18)
- Issue Date:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Little is known about the potential interactive effects of heat waves and ambient particulate matter on cardiovascular morbidity. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine whether particulate matter (PM10) modifies the association between heat waves and emergency hospital admissions for six cardiovascular diseases in Greater Sydney, Australia during the warm season for 2001–2013. We estimated and compared the effect of heat waves on high- and low-level PM10 days at lag0–lag2, adjusting for dew-point temperature, ambient ozone, ambient nitrogen dioxide, and public holidays. We also investigated the susceptibility of both younger (0– 64 years) and older populations (65 years and above), and tested the sensitivity of three heat wave definitions. Stronger heat wave effects were observed on high- compared to low-level PM10 days for emergency hospital admissions for cardiac arrest for all ages combined, 0–64 years and 65 years and above; conduction disorders for 0–64 years; and hypertensive diseases for all ages combined and 0– 64 years. Overall, we found some evidence to suggest that PM10 may modify the association between heat waves and hospital admissions for certain cardiovascular diseases, although our findings largely differed across disease, age group, lag, and heat wave definition.
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