Advanced Strategies for the Regeneration of Lumbar Disc Annulus Fibrosus.
- MDPI AG
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- International journal of molecular sciences, 2020, 21, (14), pp. 1-20
- Issue Date:
Damage to the annulus fibrosus (AF), the outer region of the intervertebral disc (IVD), results in an undesirable condition that may accelerate IVD degeneration causing low back pain. Despite intense research interest, attempts to regenerate the IVD have failed so far and no effective strategy has translated into a successful clinical outcome. Of particular significance, the failure of strategies to repair the AF has been a major drawback in the regeneration of IVD and nucleus replacement. It is unlikely to secure regenerative mediators (cells, genes, and biomolecules) and artificial nucleus materials after injection with an unsealed AF, as IVD is exposed to significant load and large deformation during daily activities. The AF defects strongly change the mechanical properties of the IVD and activate catabolic routes that are responsible for accelerating IVD degeneration. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or reconstruct AF damage to support operational IVD regenerative strategies and nucleus replacement. By the way of this review, repair and regenerative strategies for AF reconstruction, their current status, challenges ahead, and future outlooks were discussed.
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