A multilevel approach to understanding the multinationality-performance relationship

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The Past, Present & Future of International Business & Management, 2010, 1, pp. 527 - 557
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This paper offers a discussion of the key multilevel issues pertaining to the multinationalityperformance (MP) relationship. Arguably, one of the most important areas of research in international business, firm internationalization and its consequences are multilevel phenomena, influenced by forces at different managerial and structural levels: from the executive, subsidiary and firm, to the country and industry. We suggest that accounting for important factors at each level and for their cross-level interactions may help reconcile inconsistent findings and advance our understanding of the MP relationship. Based on a critical review of the literature, we offer recommendations regarding the appropriate levels of theory, measurement, and analysis to guide future research
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