Dose-based optimisation for multi-leaf collimator tracking during radiation therapy.
- IOP Publishing Ltd
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Phys Med Biol, 2021, 66, (6), pp. 065027
- Issue Date:
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Motion in the patient anatomy causes a reduction in dose delivered to the target, while increasing dose to healthy tissue. Multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking has been clinically implemented to adapt dose delivery to account for intrafraction motion. Current methods shift the planned MLC aperture in the direction of motion, then optimise the new aperture based on the difference in fluence. The drawback of these methods is that 3D dose, a function of patient anatomy and MLC aperture sequence, is not properly accounted for. To overcome the drawback of current fluence-based methods, we have developed and investigated real-time adaptive MLC tracking based on dose optimisation. A novel MLC tracking algorithm, dose optimisation, has been developed which accounts for the moving patient anatomy by optimising the MLC based on the dose delivered during treatment, simulated using a simplified dose calculation algorithm. The MLC tracking with dose optimisation method was applied in silico to a prostate cancer VMAT treatment dataset with observed intrafraction motion. Its performance was compared to MLC tracking with fluence optimisation and, as a baseline, without MLC tracking. To quantitatively assess performance, we computed the dose error and 3D γ failure rate (2 mm/2%) for each fraction and method. Dose optimisation achieved a γ failure rate of (4.7 ± 1.2)% (mean and standard deviation) over all fractions, which was significantly lower than fluence optimisation (7.5 ± 2.9)% (Wilcoxon sign-rank test p < 0.01). Without MLC tracking, a γ failure rate of (15.3 ± 12.9)% was achieved. By considering the accumulation of dose in the moving anatomy during treatment, dose optimisation is able to optimise the aperture to actively target regions of underdose while avoiding overdose.
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