Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance for Rejection Surveillance After Cardiac Transplantation.

Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Circulation, 2022, 145, (25), pp. 1811-1824
Issue Date:
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BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is the gold standard method for surveillance of acute cardiac allograft rejection (ACAR) despite its invasive nature. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-based myocardial tissue characterization allows detection of myocarditis. The feasibility of CMR-based surveillance for ACAR-induced myocarditis in the first year after heart transplantation is currently undescribed. METHODS: CMR-based multiparametric mapping was initially assessed in a prospective cross-sectional fashion to establish agreement between CMR- and EMB-based ACAR and to determine CMR cutoff values between rejection grades. A prospective randomized noninferiority pilot study was then undertaken in adult orthotopic heart transplant recipients who were randomized at 4 weeks after orthotopic heart transplantation to either CMR- or EMB-based rejection surveillance. Clinical end points were assessed at 52 weeks. RESULTS: Four hundred one CMR studies and 354 EMB procedures were performed in 106 participants. Forty heart transplant recipients were randomized. CMR-based multiparametric assessment was highly reproducible and reliable at detecting ACAR (area under the curve, 0.92; sensitivity, 93%; specificity, 92%; negative predictive value, 99%) with greater specificity and negative predictive value than either T1 or T2 parametric CMR mapping alone. High-grade rejection occurred in similar numbers of patients in each randomized group (CMR, n=7; EMB, n=8; P=0.74). Despite similarities in immunosuppression requirements, kidney function, and mortality between groups, the rates of hospitalization (9 of 20 [45%] versus 18 of 20 [90%]; odds ratio, 0.091; P=0.006) and infection (7 of 20 [35%] versus 14 of 20 [70%]; odds ratio, 0.192; P=0,019) were lower in the CMR group. On 15 occasions (6%), patients who were randomized to the CMR arm underwent EMB for clarification or logistic reasons, representing a 94% reduction in the requirement for EMB-based surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: A noninvasive CMR-based surveillance strategy for ACAR in the first year after orthotopic heart transplantation is feasible compared with EMB-based surveillance. REGISTRATION: HREC/13/SVH/66 and HREC/17/SVH/80. AUSTRALIAN NEW ZEALAND CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: ACTRN12618000672257.
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