Fostering Resilience Among Mothers Early (FRAME): using growth mixture modeling to identify resources that mitigate perinatal depression.

Springer Nature
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Arch Womens Ment Health, 2022, 25, (2), pp. 451-461
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The primary objective of this study was to delineate classes of individuals based on depression trajectories from the antenatal period through 54-month postpartum and internal and external resources that are associated with low depression risk. Participants came from the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) study (n = 5664), which is a pregnancy cohort study and is nationally representative of the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of contemporary New Zealand births. Growth curve mixture modeling was used to identify distinct subgroups based on depression scores from the antenatal period through 54-month postpartum. Logistic regression models were run to investigate socioeconomic factors and internal and external resources that were associated with depression class membership. A two-class model, "low risk" and "high risk," resulted in the best model fit. Most of the sample (n = 5110, 90%) fell into the "low-risk" class defined by no-to-mild depression symptoms during pregnancy and decreasing depressive symptoms over time (bintercept =  - .05, bslope =  - .05). Approximately 10% of the sample fell into the "high-risk" class (n = 554, 10%) defined by mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms during pregnancy and increasing depressive symptomology over time (bintercept = .39, bslope = .57). More positive parenting-related attitudes, better pre-pregnancy self-reported health, informal social supports, and community belonging were significantly associated with greater odds of being in the "low-risk" class, after controlling for socioeconomic factors. These findings suggest that targeting internal and external resources for individuals across the perinatal and early childhood periods is important to mitigating maternal depression.
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