Planning for leisure, sport, tourism and the arts: Goals and rationales

Publication Type:
Journal Article
World Leisure Journal, 2011, 53 (2), pp. 119 - 148
Issue Date:
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On the basis of a review of some 82 sets of official, professional and academic English-language guidelines, this paper1 evaluates eight rationales, goals and associated planning approaches for planning for leisure, sport, tourism and the arts: (1) meeting standards; (2) providing opportunity; (3) managing (natural/heritage) resources; (4) meeting demand; (5) satisfying stakeholder groups; (6) meeting needs; (7) meeting participation targets; and (8) providing (net) benefits. A number of the approaches are found to suffer from limitations that are generally overlooked by the guidelines reviewed. While guidelines are often strong in providing advice on data collection, they are invariably weak in regard to data analysis and the relationships between goal setting, data analysis and policy formation. A single solution to the difficulties identified is not offered, but it is concluded that a yet to be developed demand/participation/benefits-based approach to planning would offer a way forward. © 2011 World Leisure Organization.
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