Anxiety in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 2011, 40 (3), pp. 185 - 192
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Objective: Many patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) experience symptoms of anxiety; however, it is unclear whether anxiety is an issue in the early recovery period and the types of factors and patient concerns that are associated. This study set out to determine the patterns of anxiety and concerns experienced by patients undergoing PCI and the contributing factors in the time period surrounding PCI. Methods: A convenience sample of patients undergoing PCI (n = 100) were recruited, and anxiety was measured using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory immediately before the PCI, the first day postprocedure, and 1 week postdischarge. Patients were also asked to identify their most important concern at each time. Independent predictors of anxiety at each time were determined by multiple regression analysis. Results: Anxiety scores were highest pre-procedure (35.72, standard deviation [SD] 11.75), decreasing significantly by the postprocedure time (31.8, SD 10.20) and further still by the postdischarge time (28.79, SD 9.78) (repeated-measures analysis of variance: F = 39.72, P < .001). The concerns patients identified most frequently as most important were the outcome of the PCI and the possibility of surgery pre-procedure (37%) and postdischarge (31%), and the limitations and discomfort arising from the access site wound and immobility postprocedure (25%). The predictor of anxiety at the pre-procedure time was taking medication for anxiety and depression (b = 7.12). The predictors of anxiety at the postprocedure time were undergoing first-time PCI (b = 4.44), experiencing chest pain (b = 7.63), and experiencing pre-procedural anxiety (b = .49). The predictors of anxiety at the postdischarge time were reporting their most important concern as the future progression of CAD (b = 7.51) and pre-procedural anxiety (b = .37). Conclusion: Symptoms of anxiety were common, particularly before PCI. These symptoms are important to detect and treat because pre-procedural anxiety is predictive of anxiety on subsequent occasions. Patients who have had chest pain or their first PCI should be targeted for intervention during the early recovery period after PCI, and information on CAD should be provided postdischarge. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
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