Ecological effects of the insecticide imidacloprid and a pollutant from antidandruff shampoo in experimental rice fields.
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environ Toxicol Chem, 2006, 25 (6), pp. 1677 - 1687
- Issue Date:
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Ecological changes caused by the insecticide imidacloprid and a pollutant from antidandruff shampoos (zinc pyrithione) were monitored in experimental paddies throughout a cultivation period. A total of 88 species were observed, with 54 of them aquatic. Plankton, nekton, benthic, and terrestrial communities from imidacloprid fields had significantly less abundance of organisms compared with control and shampoo-treated fields, either for the entire period or during early stages. The absence of Chironomus yoshimatsui and typical paddy ostracods from imidacloprid fields was most remarkable; as a consequence, green algae blooms (Spirogyra sp.) developed, which in turn hampered the establishment of weeds. Such changes occurred while residues of imidacloprid in water were present at levels greater than 1 microg/L. The overall diversity was similar in all fields and increased constantly until the end of the study. Phytophagous insects dominated in early communities, gradually giving way to predators and scavengers during late stages, but imidacloprid fields had a lower proportion of the latter trophic group. Multivariate analyses helped to describe and differentiate the communities between treatments and control. Hazard- and risk-assessment methods overestimated the effects of zinc pyrithione but failed to predict imidacloprid impacts, probably because of deficiencies in the exposure and relevant toxicity data used.
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