Combining flipped instruction and multiple perspectives to develop cognitive and affective processes.

Publication Type:
Conference Proceeding
Citation:
2014
Issue Date:
2014-09-14
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While the phrase ‘flipped learning’ may be relatively new it has been practised by some academics and teachers for decades. Flipped learning or as we prefer flipped instruction (as the learning should ideally occur at all stages of the process) is a form of blended learning that replaces transmission-based lectures with more participative, interactive and collaborative learning opportunities. Activities are typically undertaken before, during and after class, freeing in class time to participate in activities and engage with concepts at a higher level. Flipped activities should require students to engage in dialogue and include assessment (typically formative) to allow them to evaluate their understanding and progress in meeting the desired learning outcomes. Flipping creates an opportunity for academics to provide more dynamic and thus specific feedback to students, and to receive feedback from students about both the activities they are undertaking and what they don’t yet understand. Hence, the learning environment is socially constructed as academics and students combine to influence the nature, focus, complexity and timing of subject activities. Social cognitive theory provides a way to frame our thinking about this learning context by foregrounding aspects such as the environment created for learning, as well as considering development of student self-efficacy and how to scaffold the processes for this development. This paper reports part of an ongoing study investigating relationships between engagement, goal orientation, affective outcomes and professional identity development in the context of flipped instruction. This study supported modification of our collaborative learning model [1] to explicitly provide multiple perspectives to assist students to overcome learning thresholds, develop disciplinary literacy, professional identity and expertise. In addition, it highlighted the impact of scaffolding and learning activity design on affective outcomes such as self-efficacy and includes the need for activities and assessments to be designed to enhance learning visibility. In this paper we report the impact of introducing multiple perspectives for problem-solving in a flipped instruction environment on students’ learning experience including any changes in the depth and/or method of learning, self-efficacy and professional identity development.
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