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International Encyclopaedia of the Social & Behavioural Sciences, 2015, 2, 12 pp. 145 - 151
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Innovation, and the understanding of processes of innovation, is fundamentally about social, scientific, and economic change. Innovation is seen as underpinning the productivity and success of firms, communities, and nations. Innovation, as a concept, is increasingly considered as a nonlinear multidimensional phenomenon, which involves a complex relational ecosystem with concurrent processes of value cocreation through collaboration. Innovation can be understood on several broad dimensions – product or process; technological or nontechnological; radical or incremental; and open or closed. The article will explore these dimensions, the historical background to innovation, and current issues and challenges with reference to developments in the social, scientific, engineering, and behavioral sciences, including the cross-disciplinary linkages, which illuminate the nature and significance of innovation for the twenty-first century.
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