中国电视新闻开放考察 = The opening-up of news reporting on Chinese television since the 1990s
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NO FULL TEXT AVAILABLE. Access is restricted indefinitely. ----- 本文以中国中央电视台和香港凤凰卫视为例，考察自1990年代以来中国电视新闻的开放措施及其开放幅度，以及在开放进程中所受到的政策限制与国家制约。文中侧重于中国电视新闻的政策开放、机制开放、传播内容开放等三个主要方面的研究。本文所谓的开放，有以下两个层面上的含义：其一，在中国实行经済体制改革与对外开放，尤其是在进入20世纪90年代之后中国政府对大众传媒实行舆论宏观调控和强调舆论引导这一时代背景下，中国政府及其相关部门对刚性传播政策的放松与调整；其二，中国电视传媒为使自身发展和在利益驱动下所进行的新闻改革尝试，以及这些改革尝试对包括传媒意识形态、制度、体制、政策、法规、指令等方面的超越与突破等。 实证考察与分析表明电视新闻报道依然是中国政府控制最为严密的领域，但党和政府对电视新闻节目的控制并非整齐划一，而是在不同程度上分类别、分层次地开放。各类电视新闻节目相互补充、相互渗透、相互影响，从而拓宽了主体电视新闻节目的内容，并冲击了原来的播报模式，进而改变了电视传媒的功能，扩大了新闻报道的空间和灵活性。与此同时，中国电视传媒在日趋激烈的市场竞争环境中为获取自身利益不断开拓运作空间，即通过＂打擦边球＂、＂阳奉阴违＂等种种创造性措施突破现有政策和规则限制，以使自己的主观意图或计策同外在规范相调适，即既能在行动的边界上不违反形式上的合理性，又能进一步滿足自身的需求，从而造成一种形式上的名实相符和实际上名实分离的结果。 由此可见，中国电视新闻的开放实质上是中国政府及其相关部门对传播政策的调适和中国电视传媒在日趋激烈的市场竞争环境中为获取自身利益所进行的改革尝试之间相互影响与作用的结果。尽管目前中国政府的意志和行政主导作用依然位居强势地位，但电视媒体的开创性实践表现日渐突出。从长远的角度看，这些变化的意义不可低估，因为任何走回头路的举措都会遇到阻力。鉴于中国改革开放的大政方针不变，政府内部、市场需求以及国内外媒介环境的压力等要求开放新闻的力量不减，中国电视新闻扩大开放的趋势依然可期。 Focusing on the cases of China Central Television (CCTV) and Phoenix Television (PTV), the thesis examines the ways in which news reporting on Chinese television has become more open since the 1990s. Of particular interest in the analysis are government policies allowing more openness in the mass media, institutional reform and changes in personnel management in media organizations, and relaxation of government control of the content of reporting. What is meant by 'openness' in the thesis refers to the relaxation of government control of the mass media and the breakthrough which television programs have achieved. It is argued that while news reporting on CCTV and PTV is still subject to the most stringent control by government, the control varies from time to time and from program to program. Less controlled news programs have come to complement the mainstream news programs by providing information which is not permissible to the latter, and the reporting of major national and international events have sometimes caught government agencies off guard and broken through government control. The ground that the media have gained in this way have become entrenched and recognized by the government in its new media policies. Moreover, CCTV and PTV, like other mass media, are not content to continue to the play the role of the Party-state's mouthpiece; their survival increasingly depends on its competitive edge in the marketplace. Among other things, a competitive edge can best be acquired through breakthroughs from government control which can be tolerated by the government. As a consequence, both stations, like others, have resorted to a range of ingenious and creative measures in order to expand their operational freedom. They either pay lip service to government policies and directives take advantage of policy loopholes, or distort or creatively interpret policy intent. Government control over news reporting at CCTV and PTV has been eroded and challenged as a result of these creative measures. These changes seem to be indicative of a general trend in China' mass media, where structural changes and active agency by the mass media have combined to produce greater openness.
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