Antecedents and consequences of mothers' ethical judgements of television advertisements directed at children : a study of four ethnic groups in Indonesia
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NO FULL TEXT AVAILABLE. Access is restricted indefinitely. ----- The children's market is an important one due to its size, value and role in brand socialisation. Connected with the growth in the children's market is an increase of advertising to children. The existence of such advertising remains controversial mainly because of the issue of ethicality. For example, are children mature enough to understand the message? What pressure is exerted on mothers to buy the advertised product or brand? The focus of this research is to examine mothers' ethical judgments of children's television advertising. The primary objectives were to develop a relationship model of the antecedents and consequences of mothers' ethical judgments of children's television advertising and to test whether mothers from different cultural backgrounds differ in terms of their ethical judgments of children's television advertising. For this purpose, a research model was developed consisting of(l) a core model which focused on the hypothesised relationship between antecedents and consequences of mothers' ethical judgments of children's television advertising; and (2) an expanded model which incorporates culture into the core model to test whether or not mothers from different cultural backgrounds differ in terms of their ethical judgments of children's television advertising. Furthermore, hypotheses were developed consisting of six hypotheses generated from the core model and nine hypotheses generated from the expanded model. The methodology used for this research included both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey). The respondents for both focus group and survey were mothers of children below 12 years old, however, there were different requirements regarding the educational background of the respondents, which were: at least hold bachelor degree for the focus group whereas at least high school educated for the survey. The survey was distributed to four cultural groups in Indonesia : Java, Batak, Padang and Minang to determine any cultural differences in attitudes. Two Indonesian children's TV advertisement were used as advertisement stimuli (the Frisian Flag as the ethical advertisement and Homyped Challenge as the unethical one), and before the respondents from all four cultural groups filled out the questionnaire they were exposed to the two advertisements. The data was analysed using multivariate analysis of variances and structure equation modelling. Overall the results of test of differences was found that there were some significant differences in terms of respondents' ethical ideology, parental style, attitude towards advertising to children, ethical judgment toward advertisement directed at children, attitude toward the advertiser, ad credibility, attitude towards advertisement, attitude towards brand as well as purchase intention. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that both factors, (culture and especially type of advertisement degree of ethicality) exert significant effects in relation to these differences. In terms of the hypothesis testing for the relationship models (core model), based on the PLS test of goodness of fit (GoF), the models indicated good explanatory power; and in most of the variables the R2 values for most of the Homyped Challenge models (unethical advert) were generally higher than for those in the Frisian Flag models (ethical advert). These results contributed to the body of knowledge in terms of statistically modelling antecedents and consequences of mothers' ethical judgments of children's advertisements. It has also contributed empirically to a message for advertisers, which clearly shows that regardless of the product being advertised or the respondents' cultural background, socially responsible advertising to children is important for the effectiveness of the advertising effort.
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