An investigation of factors affecting initial trust in Internet banking services in Jordan

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Despite the rapid growth in technology and the research effort given on investigating the adoption of Internet banking services (IBS), both banks and academic researchers in developing countries perceive the problem of low-level adoption of IBS. The vast majority of studies which have investigated the adoption, acceptance, or intention to use IBS, have agreed that customers’ trust is one of the most important impediments that have frustrated the success of the adoption process. Therefore, in developed countries, customers’ trust became the pivot of research studies that investigated the electronic dealings between customers and new IT/IS innovations. Recently, a few researchers have started investigating online trust in developing countries. However, existing research studies on online trust lacks a comprehensive view that addresses the issue from multiple perspectives (technical, psychological, and cultural) and offers more knowledge and understanding of the problem. To fill this gap, this study has conducted an intensive review of the literature (on online trust and on the adoption of new technological innovation). Consequently, building and examining a comprehensive unified model of initial trust in IBS adoption has been the main aim of this study. The model constructs are developed using trust antecedents, national culture, and the diffusion of innovation theory. The study model was then verified and examined using a rigorous research design that employed a sequential mixed approach that consist of: (i) a quantitative method that involved both a pilot study and a large-scale survey, and (ii) a qualitative method that adopted semi-structured interviews to collect data from nine academic and industry experts. Teachers were surveyed and 540 questionnaires were identified as valid. The obtained quantitative data of the study was analysed using manifold statistical techniques including: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, measurement model), and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the AMOS software. Moreover, a content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data in order to confirm the quantitative results, validate the initial trust model in IBS, and provide recommendations for future research. The results of this study show that organizational structural assurance, banks’ reputation, perceived relative advantages, and uncertainty avoidance are the most important determinants of customers’ initial trust in IBS in Jordan. In addition, the results indicate that initial trust in IBS positively influences intention to use IBS. The obtained results underpin the claim that national culture has a significant role in forming customers’ initial trust in IBS, particularly in developing context. The current study provides a cornerstone for the intention to use new technological innovations in developing countries, especially IBS. Furthermore, the study provides a set of academic and practical implications, and discusses the research limitations and future directions.
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