高等教育与社会变革 : 中国留学教育政策的影响 = Higher education and social change : the impact of China's study-abroad policies

Publication Type:
Thesis
Issue Date:
2007
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NO FULL TEXT AVAILABLE. This thesis contains 3rd party copyright material. ----- 在经济全球化、高等教育国际化的背景下,作为中国改革开放重要组成部分的留学教育至今已有近30年的发展历程。多数研究认为国内和国际各种因素导致了留学教育中的人才外流和回流,然而对留学教育政策的主导性作用研究甚少。近30年来,中国的留学教育政策经历了调整和完善,面对机遇和挑战,在挫折中求发展,变被动为主动,逐步走上了良性发展的轨道。 本研究通过考察中国30年来留学教育政策性文件规定,同时对山西省高等院校部分回国留学人员进行问卷调查,对国家留学基金管理委员会、山西省留学人员管理委员会和山西省9所主要高校的访谈,经过定性、定量分析,研究中国留学教育政策的可持续性、有效性和合理性。 研究结果表明,中国新时期的留学教育政策对人才外流、回归和使用产生了重要作用。留学教育政策的每次重大调整都会对人才的外流或回流产生直接的影响。80年代和90年代初期,留学教育政策时紧时松,缺乏可持续性和稳定性,一些政策政治性过强,缺乏应对国际人才竞争局势的系统的有效措施,脱离公派留学人员的实际情况,给政府和留学人员造成了心理上的压力,构成了中国改革开放初期留学人才外流的重要原因。93年以后,中国实行"支持出国,鼓励回国,来去自由"开明、豁达、宽容的留学政策,不断学会竞争,由原来要求留学人员回国的政策转变为吸引留学人员回国/为国服务政策,推动了留学人才回归潮,也促进了仍在海外的留学人员以各种形式为国服务。虽然回国留学人员已经为中国的经济建设和社会发展做出了巨大的贡献,但回国留学人员新知织、新技术转化政策还处于形成时期,还有待进一步落实,就目前而言,一些政策过分强调了海外留学人员回国创业,却在一定程度上忽视了充分发挥已回国留学人员的作用,在回国留学人员相对集中的高等教育机构尤其如此。 尽管曾经走过一些弯路,中国的留学教育政策经过不断完善,已经进入了一个法制化、规范化、制度化、重质量、重效益的理性发展时期。笔者相信,随着教育服务贸易的逐步展开,如果中国根据自己所做的承诺,积极主动利用发达国家先进教育资源和技术优势,用合理的政策予以保障,教育的境外消费与跨境提供并举,国内国外培养相结合,必将满足建设创新型国家对高层次人才的需求。 China’s practice of sending students and scholars abroad since 1978 and the implementation of the ‘open policy’ has attracted the attention of the international community, not least because there has been more brain drain than brain gain. Challenged by economic globalization and the internationalization of higher education, China’s overseas education policies have undergone frequent readjustments in an effort to control the brain drain but, quite to the contrary, these changes have obviously resulted in some instability and lack of sustainability in policy, which, in turn, led to a great number of intellectuals staying in the destination countries after their overseas studies were completed. While most research focuses on the interplay of market forces that has led to China’s brain drain, very little research has examined the impact of government policies. In addition little research has considered the benefits overseas education has brought to the internationalization of China’s higher education and society in general. Through documentary analysis and interviews in Shanxi Province, this thesis examines the impact of government policies on the brain drain, the encouragement of overseas educated graduates to return, and the transfer of new knowledge and new technology. This study reveals the central role played by government policy. While frequent policy changes during the 1980s resulted in a brain drain of enormous proportions, the policies of the 1990s to ‘support overseas study, encourage people to return, and give people the freedom to come and go’ show that China has learned to compete in the international market. To some extent China has even created a ‘reverse brain drain’ with numbers of returnees increasing dramatically and greater numbers of overseas Chinese sojourners aiding the transfer of new knowledge and technology to China. It is likely that China’s brain drain will continue as long as the higher educational disparities remain between China and the major overseas educational markets. China clearly needs to improve and upgrade its system of higher education. One way this could be achieved would be by encouraging overseas universities to operate in China.
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