Self-management of diabetes type 2 in Jordan : an action research project

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Diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2 represents a public health problem affecting every nation around the world. Jordan is not exceptional where research indicates that diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent in the Jordanian community. International research findings have established that people with diabetes are at high risk of developing many complications and they have a higher mortality rate when compared with people who are non-diabetic. Additionally, diabetes is a disease that requires self-management and people with diabetes need education to motivate them and increase their skills and knowledge to manage their disease effectively. To date, no formal educational programs exist in Jordan for people with diabetes type 2. This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of a group education program with the cooperation of people with diabetes type 2 and health care professionals, to study how people with diabetes understand diabetes and its management and to investigate the barriers that prevent participants from adhering to proper management An action research methodology was employed in this study. The study was carried out in Al-Adna'nyah, Al-Karak Jordan. Forty six people with diabetes type 2 (21 men and 25 women) agreed to participate. Baseline data included BMI, FPG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, knowledge level and level of adherence to prescribed treatment were collected before and 15 weeks after the end of the educational program. Data collection included tape recording, interviews and field notes. Quantitative data were analyzed with the SPSS software program (VIO.O) using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOV A. Qualitative data were transcribed and translated from Arabic to English and analyzed using a constant comparison method. After the program participants significantly increased their knowledge and adherence to recommended treatments. Also there was a significant reduction in participants' BMI, FPG, cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Qualitative data supported these findings indicating how the participants improved their knowledge and positively changed their self care behaviour in relation to diabetes management. In addition the qualitative results identified many socio-cultural and organizational factors that affect the management of diabetes.
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