Water quality and toxicity assessment of streams flowing from the Wakehurst Golf Course and surrounds

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NO FULL TEXT AVAILABLE. Access is restricted indefinitely. ----- Concern regarding the presence of nutrients and chemicals in surface waters draining golf courses has substantially increased over the last few decades. The use of nutrients and chemicals on golf courses for turfgrass maintenance is intensive and contamination of nearby surface waters is likely. Wakehurst Golf Course has come under criticism in the past about its impact on the nutrient enrichment of Manly Dam. Using a suite of physico-chemical, nutrient and toxicological methods, the water quality and toxicological impacts of Wakehurst Golf Course on receiving waters were investigated. Streams draining Wakehurst Golf Course had increased physico-chemical levels (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) and nutrient concentrations (PO₄³⁻, NOₓ) that exceed the default ANZECC/ARMCANZ water quality guidelines. Waters draining the course were not toxic to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitatam, the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, the shrimp Paratya australiensis and the rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida. However, the algal bioassay results indicated a stimulation of algal growth in waters draining the golf course and thus a potential for eutrophication problems to occur. Physico-chemical and nutrient concentrations from reference and above course sites also exceeded the default ANZECC/ARMANZ guidelines. Consequently, a set of revised, site-specific guidelines was derived. These revised guidelines were reapplied to the golf course sites; however, physico-chemical and nutrient concentrations in the streams still exceeded these guidelines. Therefore, management practices at Wakehurst Golf Course should focus on reducing nutrient concentrations through best management practices such as reducing fertilizer application rates and maintaining and developing vegetated filter strips and wetlands.
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