Preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO <inf>2</inf> ) from sludge produced by TiCl <inf>4</inf> flocculation with FeCl <inf>3</inf> , A1 <inf>2</inf> (SO <inf>4</inf> )3 and Ca(OH) <inf>2</inf> coagulant aids in wastewater

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Separation Science and Technology, 2009, 44 (7), pp. 1525 - 1543
Issue Date:
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In this study, TiCl 4 coagulant together with coagulant aids such as FeCl 3 , A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3, and Ca(OH) 2 were investigated to improve the photoactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) produced from sludge and to increase the resulting low pH value. After TiCl 4 flocculation with three coagulant aids, the settled floe (sludge) was incinerated at 600°C to produce TiO 2 doped with Fe, Al, and Ca elements. Fe-, Al-, and Ca-doped TiO 2 was characterized in terms of structural, chemical, and photo-electronic properties. All the coagulant aids used together with Ti-salt flocculation effectively increased the pH values. The surface area of TiO 2 -WO (without any coagulant aids), Fe/Ti0 2 , Al/Ti0 2 , and Ca/Ti0 2 was 122 m 2 /g, 77 m 2 /g, 136 m 2 /g and 116 m 2 /g, respectively. The TiO 2 -WO, Fe/Ti0 2 ) Al/Ti0 2 , and Ca/Ti0 2 was found to be of anatase phase. The XRD pattern on the Fe/Ti0 2 included an additional peak of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The majority of gaseous acetaldehyde with TiO 2 -WO and Ca/Ti0 2 for photocatalytic activity was completely removed within 40 minutes under UV irradiation.
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