Preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO<inf>2</inf>) from sludge produced by TiCl<inf>4</inf>flocculation with FeCl<inf>3</inf>, A1<inf>2</inf>(SO<inf>4</inf>)3 and Ca(OH)<inf>2</inf>coagulant aids in wastewater

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Journal Article
Separation Science and Technology, 2009, 44 (7), pp. 1525 - 1543
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In this study, TiCl4coagulant together with coagulant aids such as FeCl3, A12(S04)3,and Ca(OH)2were investigated to improve the photoactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) produced from sludge and to increase the resulting low pH value. After TiCl4flocculation with three coagulant aids, the settled floe (sludge) was incinerated at 600°C to produce TiO2doped with Fe, Al, and Ca elements. Fe-, Al-, and Ca-doped TiO2was characterized in terms of structural, chemical, and photo-electronic properties. All the coagulant aids used together with Ti-salt flocculation effectively increased the pH values. The surface area of TiO2-WO (without any coagulant aids), Fe/Ti02, Al/Ti02, and Ca/Ti02was 122 m2/g, 77 m2/g, 136 m2/g and 116 m2/g, respectively. The TiO2-WO, Fe/Ti02) Al/Ti02, and Ca/Ti02was found to be of anatase phase. The XRD pattern on the Fe/Ti02included an additional peak of hematite (α-Fe2O3). The majority of gaseous acetaldehyde with TiO2-WO and Ca/Ti02for photocatalytic activity was completely removed within 40 minutes under UV irradiation.
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