A theory of computation based on quantum logic (I)
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Theoretical Computer Science, 2005, 344 (2-3), pp. 134 - 207
- Issue Date:
The (meta)logic underlying classical theory of computation is Boolean (two-valued) logic. Quantum logic was proposed by Birkhoff and von Neumann as a logic of quantum mechanics more than 60 years ago. It is currently understood as a logic whose truth values are taken from an orthomodular lattice. The major difference between Boolean logic and quantum logic is that the latter does not enjoy distributivity in general. The rapid development of quantum computation in recent years stimulates us to establish a theory of computation based on quantum logic. The present paper is the first step toward such a new theory and it focuses on the simplest models of computation, namely finite automata. We introduce the notion of orthomodular lattice-valued (quantum) automaton. Various properties of automata are carefully reexamined in the framework of quantum logic by employing an approach of semantic analysis. We define the class of regular languages accepted by orthomodular lattice-valued automata. The acceptance abilities of orthomodular lattice-valued nondeterministic automata and their various modifications (such as deterministic automata and automata with ε-moves) are compared. The closure properties of orthomodular lattice-valued regular languages are derived. The Kleene theorem about equivalence of regular expressions and finite automata is generalized into quantum logic. We also present a pumping lemma for orthomodular lattice-valued regular languages. It is found that the universal validity of many properties (for example, the Kleene theorem, the equivalence of deterministic and nondeterministic automata) of automata depend heavily upon the distributivity of the underlying logic. This indicates that these properties does not universally hold in the realm of quantum logic. On the other hand, we show that a local validity of them can be recovered by imposing a certain commutativity to the (atomic) statements about the automata under consideration. This reveals an essential difference between the classical theory of computation and the computation theory based on quantum logic. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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