Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO<inf>2</inf>nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl<inf>4</inf>flocculation of wastewater and seawater
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2009, 11 (8), pp. 2087 - 2096
- Issue Date:
Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl4has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl4flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl4flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl4flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl4flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO2nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO2nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO2nanoparticle, P-25. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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