Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO <inf>2</inf> nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl <inf>4</inf> flocculation of wastewater and seawater
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2009, 11 (8), pp. 2087 - 2096
- Issue Date:
Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl 4 has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl 4 flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl 4 flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl 4 flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl 4 flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO 2 nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO 2 nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO 2 nanoparticle, P-25. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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