Solutions of twisted word equations, EDT0L languages, and context-free groups

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Conference Proceeding
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs, 2017, 80
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© Volker Diekert and Murray Elder; 1998 ACM Subject Classification F.2.2 Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems, F.4.2 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems, F.4.3 Formal Languages. We prove that the full solution set of a twisted word equation with regular constraints is an EDT0L language. It follows that the set of solutions to equations with rational constraints in a contextfree group (= finitely generated virtually free group) in reduced normal forms is EDT0L. We can also decide whether or not the solution set is finite, which was an open problem. Moreover, this can all be done in PSPACE. Our results generalize the work by Lohrey and Sénizergues (ICALP 2006) and Dahmani and Guirardel (J. of Topology 2010) with respect to complexity and with respect to expressive power. Both papers show that satisfiability is decidable, but neither gave any concrete complexity bound. Our results concern all solutions, and give, in some sense, the "optimal" formal language characterization.
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