Detection of fingermarks by colloidal gold (MMD/SMD) - beyond the pH 3 limit

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Journal Article
Forensic Science International, 2012, 219 (1-3), pp. 39 - 49
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This work is part of a continuing goal to improve the multimetal deposition technique (MMD), as well as the single-metal deposition (SMD), to make them more robust, more user-friendly, and less labour-intensive. Indeed, two major limitations of the MMD/SMD were identified: (1) the synthesis of colloidal gold, which is quite labour-intensive, and (2) the sharp decrease in efficiency observed when the pH of the working solution is increased above pH 3. About the synthesis protocol, it has been simplified so that there is no more need to monitor the temperature during the synthesis. The efficiency has also been improved by adding aspartic acid, conjointly with sodium citrate, during the synthesis of colloidal gold. This extends the range of pH for which it is possible to detect fingermarks in the frame of the MMD/SMD. The operational range is now extended from 2 to 6.7, compared to 2-3 for the previous formulations. The increased robustness of the working solution may improve the ability of the technique to process substrates that tend to increase the pH of the solution after their immersion. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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