Furoxan Nitric Oxide Donors Disperse Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms, Accelerate Growth, and Repress Pyoverdine Production

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Journal Article
ACS Chemical Biology, 2017, 12 (8), pp. 2097 - 2106
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© 2017 American Chemical Society. The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development, and dispersal were also characterized. Compound LL4254, which showed a fast rate of NO release, induced biofilm dispersal at approximately 200 μM. While LL4212 and LL4216 have a slower rate of NO release, both compounds could induce biofilm dispersal, under the same treatment conditions, when used at higher concentrations. In addition, LL4212 and LL4216 were found to promote P. aeruginosa growth in iron-limited minimal medium, leading to a faster rate of biofilm formation and glucose utilization, and ultimately resulted in early dispersal of biofilm cells through carbon starvation. High concentrations of LL4216 also repressed production of the siderophore pyoverdine by more than 50-fold, via both NOx-dependent and NOx-independent mechanisms. The effects on growth and pyoverdine levels exerted by the furoxans appeared to be mediated by NO-independent mechanisms, suggesting functional activities of furoxans in addition to their release of NO and nitrite. Overall, this study reveals that secondary effects of furoxans are important considerations for their use as NO-releasing dispersal agents and that these compounds could be potentially redesigned as pyoverdine inhibitors.
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