Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces MKP-1 expression via p38 MAPK- and CREB-mediated pathways in airway smooth muscle cells

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Journal Article
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, 2012, 1823 (10), pp. 1658 - 1665
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid elevated in asthmatic airways, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in respiratory disease. S1P activates receptor-mediated signaling to modulate diverse cellular functions and promote airway inflammation. Although many of the stimulatory pathways activated by S1P have been delineated, especially mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), the question of whether S1P exerts negative feedback control on its own signaling cascade via upregulation of phosphatases remains unexplored. We show that S1P rapidly and robustly upregulates mRNA and protein expression of the MAPK deactivator-MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). Utilizing the pivotal airway structural cell, airway smooth muscle (ASM), we confirm that S1P activates all members of the MAPK family and, in part, S1P upregulates MKP-1 expression in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. MKP-1 is a cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein-responsive gene and here, we reveal for the first time that an adenylate cyclase/PKA/CREB-mediated pathway also contributes to S1P-induced MKP-1. Thus, by increasing MKP-1 expression via parallel p38 MAPK- and CREB-mediated pathways, S1P temporally regulates MAPK signaling pathways by upregulating the negative feedback controller MKP-1. This limits the extent and duration of pro-inflammatory MAPK signaling and represses cytokine secretion in ASM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that S1P stimulates both kinases and the phosphatase MKP-1 to control inflammation in ASM cells and may provide a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pro-asthmatic functions induced by the potent bioactive sphingolipid S1P in the lung. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
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