Electronic structures of planar and mixed C<inf>70</inf>/CuPc heterojunctions in organic photovoltaic devices

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Journal Article
Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications, 2011, 12 (8), pp. 1422 - 1428
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Understanding the electronic structures of organic donor-acceptor heterojunction is of pronounced importance for the optimization of organic photovoltaic cells. Here, the detailed electronic structures of a planar fullerene (C70)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) bilayer and a mixed C70:CuPc bulk heterojunction (BHJ) have been studied via in situ photoemission spectroscopy. The results show that the energy level alignment by lining up separately observed energy levels of individual organic materials is not valid for these organic heterojunctions. The energy offset between the highest occupied molecular orbital of donor-like CuPc and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of acceptor-like C70, which is regarded as the origin of open-circuit voltage (VOC), is found to increase from 0.55 eV in the bilayer structure to 0.8 eV in the BHJ, which is possibly associated with the polarizability changes of C70and CuPc molecules in the BHJs. This change is confirmed by the VOCvariation in devices, where the VOCdramatically increased from 0.35 to 0.46 V by replacing the C70/CuPc bilayer with C70:CuPc BHJ. The thermal annealing effect on the mixed C70:CuPc BHJ reveals vertical phase separation, resulting in inhomogeneous concentration distribution in profile. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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