Facial image restoration and retrieval through orthogonality
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Orthogonality has different definitions in geometry, statistics and calculus. This thesis studies how to incorporate orthogonality to facial image restoration and retrieval tasks. A facial image restoration method and three retrieval methods were proposed. Blur in facial images significantly impedes the efficiency of recognition approaches. However, most existing blind deconvolution methods cannot generate satisfactory results, due to their dependence on strong edges which are sufficient in natural images but not in facial images. A novel method is proposed in this report. Point spread functions (PSF) are represented by the linear combination of a set of pre-defined orthogonal PSFs and similarly, an estimated intrinsic sharp face image (EI) is represented by the linear combination of a set of pre-defined orthogonal face images. In doing so, PSF and EI estimation is simplified to discovering two sets of linear combination coefficients which are simultaneously found by the proposed coupled learning algorithm. To make the method robust to different kinds of blurry face images, several candidate PSFs and EIs are generated for a test image, and then a non-blind deconvolution method is adopted to generate more EIs by those candidate PSFs. Finally, a blind image quality assessment metric is deployed to automatically select the optimal EI. On the other hand, the orthogonality is incorporated into the proposed Unimodal image retrieval method. Hashing methods have been widely investigated for fast approximate nearest neighbor searching in large datasets. Most existing methods use binary vectors in lower dimensional spaces to represent data points that are usually real vectors of higher dimensionality. The proposed method divides the hashing process into two steps. Data points are first embedded in a low-dimensional space, and the Global Positioning System (GPS) method is subsequently introduced but modified for binary embedding. Data-independent and data-dependent methods are devised to distribute the satellites at appropriate locations. The proposed methods are based on finding the tradeoff between the information losses in these two steps. Experiments show that the data-dependent method outperforms other methods in different-sized datasets from 100K to 10M. By incorporating the orthogonality of the code matrix, both data-independent and data-dependent methods are particularly impressive in experiments on longer bits. In social networks, heterogeneous multimedia data correlates to each other, such as videos and their corresponding tags in YouTube and image-text pairs in Facebook. Nearest neighbor retrieval across multiple modalities on large data sets becomes a hot yet challenging problem. Hashing is expected to be an efficient solution, since it represents data as binary codes. As the bit-wise XOR operations can be fast handled, the retrieval time is greatly reduced. Few existing multi-modal hashing methods consider the correlation among hashing bits. The correlation has negative impact on hashing codes. When the hashing code length becomes longer, the retrieval performance improvement becomes slower. The proposed method incorporates a so-called minimum correlation constraint which can be treated as a generalization of orthogonality constraint. Experiments show the superiority of the proposed method becomes greater as the code length increases. Deep neural network is expected to be an efficient way for multi-modal hashing. We propose a hybrid neural network which consists of a convolutional neural network for facial images and a full-connected neural network for tags or labels. The minimum correlation regularization is imposed on the parameters of output layers. Experiments validates the superiority of the proposed hybrid neural network.
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