Rice Resistance to Planthoppers and Leafhoppers

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Journal Article
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 2013, 32 (3), pp. 162 - 191
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For over 50 years, host-plant resistance has been regarded as an efficient method to reduce yield losses to rice caused by delphacid and cicadelid hoppers. Already a number of resistant rice varieties have been developed and deployed throughout Asia. To date, over 70 hopper resistance genes have been identified in rice; however, less than 10 genes have been deliberately introduced to commercial rice varieties. Currently, due to recent brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [Stål]) and whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera [Horvath]) outbreaks occurring at an unprecedented scale, researchers are working toward a second generation of resistant varieties using newly identified gene loci and applying new molecular breeding methods. This paper reviews advances in the identification of resistance genes and QTLs against hoppers in rice. It collates all published information on resistance loci and QTLs against the major rice planthoppers and leafhoppers and presents information on gene locations, genetic markers, differential varieties, and wild rice species as sources of resistance. The review indicates that, whereas progress in the identification of genes has been rapid, considerable tidying of the information is required, especially regarding gene nomenclature and resistance spectra. Furthermore, sound information on gene functioning is almost completely lacking. However, hopper responses to resistance mechanisms are likely to be similar because a single phenotyping technique has been applied by most national and international breeding programs during germplasm screening. The review classifies genes occurring at two chromosome regions associated with several identified resistance loci and highlights these (Chr4S: BphR-R and Chr12L: BphR-R) as general stress response regions. The review calls for a greater diversity of phenotyping methods to enhance the durability of resistant varieties developed using marker-aided selection and emphasizes a need to anticipate the development of virulent hopper populations in response to the field deployment of genes. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
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