Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

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Journal Article
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2014, 29 (2), pp. 156e165 - 156e165
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© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue remodelling, but also have an important role in pulmonary inflammation. This review will describe the immunomodulatory functions of pulmonary mesenchymal cells, such as airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and lung fibroblasts, in chronic respiratory disease. An important theme of the review is that pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only respond to inflammatory mediators, but also produce their own mediators, whether pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving, which influence the quantity and quality of the lung immune response. The notion that defective pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving signalling in these cells potentially contributes to disease progression is also discussed. Finally, the concept of specifically targeting pulmonary mesenchymal cell immunomodulatory function to improve therapeutic control of chronic respiratory disease is considered.
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