Treatment of rectal chlamydia infection may be more complicated than we originally thought

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2014, 70 (4), pp. 961 - 964
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© The Author 2014. Rectal chlamydia diagnoses have been increasing among MSM and mayalso rise among women as anal sex rates increase among heterosexuals. However, there is growing concern about treatment for rectal chlamydia with treatment failures of up to 22% being reported. This article addresses factors that may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia, including the pharmacokinetic properties of azithromycin and doxycycline in rectal tissue, the ability of chlamydia to transform into a persistent state that is less responsive to antimicrobial therapy, the impact of the rectal microbiome on chlamydia, heterotypic resistance, failure to detect cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and the performance of screening tests. If we are to reduce the burden of genital chlamydia, treatment for rectal chlamydia must be efficacious. This highlights the need for randomized controlled trial evidence comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia.
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