Effect of vaccination on cattle subclinically infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus in Cameroon

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Citation:
Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2018, 155 pp. 1 - 10
Issue Date:
2018-07-01
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© 2018 Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious and economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Four serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV; O, A, SAT1, SAT2) circulate in Cameroon, and a trivalent inactivated vaccine against the three most common serotypes (O, A, SAT2) was recently introduced in 2014. The objective of this study was to characterize vaccine performance in cattle under natural hyperendemic conditions in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Vaccinated cattle (n = 50) and non-vaccinated controls (n = 100) were monitored by serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample collection through a 12-month period. Anti-FMDV non-structural protein (anti-NSP) seroprevalence increased from 59.3% (89/150) at the beginning of the study to 85.8% (103/120) at the end of the study, and FMDV RNA was found in 28% (42/150) of animals overall, despite detection of clinical signs of FMD in only 6 non-vaccinated animals. Viral sequence analysis indicated that subclinical infections of FMDV serotypes O and A were present within the study herds during the study period, which was reflected by an overall increase of anti-NSP seroprevalence during the study. There was no association between vaccination status and seroconversion or prevalence of FMDV RNA in OPF. Younger cattle had higher odds of detection of FMDV RNA in OPF, but older animals were more likely to be seropositive. This study suggests vaccination of herds previously exposed to FMDV may help to limit clinical signs and reduce economic losses caused by FMDV. These findings also suggest that subclinical circulation of FMDV occurs in hyperendemic regions regardless of vaccination.
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