Acid-base fractions separated from Streblus asper leaf ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and neuroprotective activities.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018, 18 (1), pp. 223 - ?
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BACKGROUND: Streblus asper is a well-known plant native to Southeast Asia. Different parts of the plant have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. However, there is very little scientific evidence reporting its therapeutic benefits for potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and neuroprotective properties of S. asper leaf extracts with the primary objective of enhancing therapeutic applications and facilitating activity-guided isolation of the active chemical constituents. METHODS: The leaves of S. asper were extracted in ethanol and subsequently fractionated into neutral, acid and base fractions. The phytochemical constituents of each fraction were analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using a broth microdilution method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity was tested on hippocampal neuronal HT22 cell line by evaluating the cell viability using MTT assay. The AChE inhibitory activity was screened by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautographic method. RESULTS: The partition of the S. asper ethanolic leaf extract yielded the highest mass of phytochemical constitutions in the neutral fraction and the lowest in the basic fraction. Amongst the three fractions, the acidic fraction showed the strongest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. The antioxidant activities of three fractions were found in the order of acidic > basic > neutral, whereas the decreasing order of neuroprotective activity was neutral > basic > acidic. TLC bioautography revealed one component in the neutral fraction exhibited anti-AChE activity. While in the acid fraction, two components showed inhibitory activity against AChE. GC-MS analysis of three fractions showed the presence of major phytochemical constituents including terpenoids, steroids, phenolics, fatty acids, and lipidic plant hormone. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of three fractions extracted from S. asper leaves as a promising natural source for neuroprotective agents with additional actions of antibacterials and antioxidants, along with AChE inhibitors that will benefit in the development of new natural compounds in therapies against AD.
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