Peapod-like Li<inf>3</inf>VO<inf>4</inf>/N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors

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Journal Article
Advanced Materials, 2017, 29 (27)
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li3VO4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li3VO4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li3VO4/N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li3VO4/N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 532 W kg−1, revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices.
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