Precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Effects of precipitation method on electrophoretic deposition

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Journal Article
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2005, 16 (4), pp. 319 - 324
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Electrophoretic deposition is a low-cost, simple, and flexible coating method for producing hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants with a broad range of thicknesses, from < 1 μ m to > 500 μ m. As for many other HA coating techniques, densification of electrophoretically deposited coatings involves heating the coated metal to temperatures above 1000°C. Metal substrates tend to react with HA coatings at such temperatures inducing decomposition at temperatures below 1050°C (decomposition for pure HA normally occurs above 1300°C). Therefore, densification of these coatings needs to be conducted at temperatures lower than 1050°C, and this necessitates the use of high-surface-area HA nano-precipitates, rather than commercially available pre-calcined powders, which densify at temperatures typically higher than 1200°C. HA nano-precipitates were prepared by three methods and deposited on metal substrates by electrophoresis: (1) the acid base method, which produced plate-like nano-particles with a 2.5:1 aspect ratio, and severely cracked coatings; (2) the calcium acetate method, which produced needle-like nano-particles with a 10:1 aspect ratio, and slightly cracked coatings; (3) the metathesis method, which produced rounded nano-particles with a 2:1 aspect ratio, and high-quality crack-free coatings. The results suggested that the less equiaxed the nano-particles, the more cracked the coatings obtained by the electrophoretic deposition technique. © 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
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