Advances in Nanoporous Anodic Alumina-Based Biosensors to Detect Biomarkers of Clinical Significance: A Review

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Journal Article
Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2018, 7 (5)
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim There is a strong and growing demand for compact, portable, rapid, and low-cost devices to detect biomarkers of interest in clinical and point-of-care diagnostics. Such devices aid in early diagnosis of diseases without the need to rely on expensive and time-consuming large instruments in dedicated laboratories. Over the last decade, numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of a wide range of clinical biomarkers including proteins, nucleic acids, growth factors, and bacterial enzymes. Various transduction techniques have been reported based on biosensor technology that deliver substantial advances in analytical performance, including sensitivity, reproducibility, selectivity, and speed for monitoring a wide range of human health conditions. Nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) has been used extensively for biosensing applications due to its inherent optical and electrochemical properties, ease of fabrication, large surface area, tunable properties, and high stability in aqueous environment. This review focuses on NAA-based biosensing systems for detection of clinically significant biomarkers using various detection techniques with the main focus being on electrochemical and optical transduction methods. The review covers an overview of the importance of biosensors for biomarkers detection, general (surface and structural) properties and fabrication of NAA, and NAA-based biomarker sensing systems.
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