Amplification and next generation sequencing of near full-length human enteroviruses for identification and characterisation from clinical samples

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Scientific Reports, 2018, 8 (1)
Issue Date:
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© 2018, The Author(s). More than 100 different enterovirus (EV) genotypes infect humans and contribute to substantial morbidity. However, current methods for characterisation of full-length genomes are based on Sanger sequencing of short genomic regions, which are labour-intensive and do not enable comprehensive characterisation of viral populations. Here, we describe a simple and sensitive protocol for the amplification and sequencing of near full-length genomes of human EV species using next generation sequencing. EV genomes were amplified from 89% of samples tested, with Ct values ranging between 15.7 and 39.3. These samples included 7 EV-A genotypes (CVA2, 5–7, 10, 16 and EV71), 19 EV-B genotypes (CVA9, CVB1-6, ECHO3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 16, 18, 25, 29, 30, and EV69), 3 EV-C genotypes (CVA19 and PV2, 3) and 1 EV-D genotype (EV70). We characterised 70 EVs from 58 clinical stool samples and eight reference strains, with a minimum of 100X depth. We found evidence of co-infection in four clinical specimens, each containing two distinct EV genotypes (CVB3/ECHO7, CVB3/ECHO18 and ECHO9/30). Characterisation of the complete genome provided conclusive genotyping of EVs, which can be applied to investigate the intra-host virus evolution of EVs, and allows further identification and investigation of EV outbreaks.
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