Gene therapy and type 1 diabetes mellitus

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Journal Article
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 2018, 108 pp. 1188 - 1200
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© 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by T cell-mediated self-destruction of insulin-secreting islet β cells. Management of T1DM is challenging and complicated especially with conventional medications. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the potential therapeutic alternatives to treat T1DM. This review primarily focuses on the current status and the future perspectives of gene therapy in the management of T1DM. A vast number of the studies which are reported on gene therapy for the management of T1DM are done in animal models and in preclinical studies. In addition, the safety of such therapies is yet to be established in humans. Currently, there are several gene level interventions that are being investigated, notably, overexpression of genes and proteins needed against T1DM, transplantation of cells that express the genes against T1DM, stem-cells mediated gene therapy, genetic vaccination, immunological precursor cell-mediated gene therapy and vectors. Methods: We searched the current literature through searchable online databases, journals and other library sources using relevant keywords and search parameters. Only relevant publications in English, between the years 2000 and 2018, with evidences and proper citations, were considered. The publications were then analyzed and segregated into several subtopics based on common words and content. A total of 126 studies were found suitable for this review. Findings: Generally, the pros and cons of each of the gene-based therapies have been discussed based on the results collected from the literature. However, there are certain interventions that require further detailed studies to ensure their effectiveness. We have also highlighted the future direction and perspectives in gene therapy, which, researchers could benefit from.
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