Emerging therapeutic potential of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in acute kidney injury.
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Acute kidney injury remains a global challenge and, despite the availability of dialysis and transplantation, can be fatal. Those that survive an acute kidney injury are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease and end stage renal failure. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms underpinning the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury is critical for developing novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. A growing body of evidence indicates that amplifying type 2 immunity may have therapeutic potential in kidney injury and disease. Of particular interest are the recently described subset of innate immune cells, termed group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are crucial tissue-resident immune cells that maintain homeostasis and regulate tissue repair at multiple organ sites, including the kidney. They are critical mediators of type 2 immune responses following infection and injury. The existing literature suggests that activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and production of a local type 2 immune milieu is protective against renal injury and associated pathology. In this review, we describe the emerging role for group 2 innate lymphoid cells in renal homeostasis and repair. We provide an in-depth discussion of the most recent literature that use pre-clinical models of acute kidney injury and assess the therapeutic effect of modulating group 2 innate lymphoid cell function. We debate the potential for targeting these cells as novel cellular therapies in acute kidney injury and discuss the implications for future studies and translation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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