Delivery of Amonafide from Fructose-Coated Nanodiamonds by Oxime Ligation for the Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

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Journal Article
Biomacromolecules, 2018, 19 (2), pp. 451 - 489
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© 2018 American Chemical Society. The introduction of a strategy toward polymer/nanodiamond hybrids with high polymer grafting density and accessible polymer structural characterization is of critical importance for nanodiamonds' surface modification and bioagent attachment for their biomedical application. Here, we report a glycopolymer/nanodiamond hybrid drug delivery system, which was prepared by grafting amonafide-conjugated glycopolymers onto the surface of nanodiamonds via oxime ligation. Poly(1-O-methacryloyl-2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-β-d-fructopyranose)-b-poly(3-vinylbenzaldehyde-co-methyl methacrylate), featuring pendant aldehyde groups, is prepared via RAFT polymerization. The anticancer drug amonafide is conjugated to the polymer chains via imine chemistry, resulting in acid-degradable imine linkages. The obtained amonafide-conjugated glycopolymers are subsequently grafted onto the surface of aminooxy-functionalized nanodiamonds via oxime ligation. The molecular weight of the conjugated polymers is characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the successful conjugation and corresponding grafting density is assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric aanalysis (TGA). Our results indicate that the mass percentage of amonafide in the polymer chains is around 17% and the surface density of polymer chains is 0.24 molecules/nm2. The prepared drug delivery system has a hydrodynamic size around 380 nm with low PDI (0.3) and can effectively deliver amonafide into breast cancer cell and significantly inhibit the cancer cell viability. In 2D cell culture models, the IC50 values of ND-Polymer-AMF delivery system (7.19 μM for MCF-7; 4.92 μM for MDA-MB-231) are lower than those of free amonafide (11.23 μM for MCF-7; 13.98 μM for MDA-MB-231). An inhibited cell viability of nanodiamonds/polymer delivery system is also observed in 3D spheroids' models, suggesting that polymer-diamonds hybrid materials can be promising platforms for breast cancer therapy.
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