A 430-MHz Wirelessly Powered Implantable Pulse Generator with Intensity/Rate Control and Sub-1 μa Quiescent Current Consumption

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, 2019, 13 (1), pp. 180 - 190
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© 2007-2012 IEEE. This work presents a miniaturized μW-level implantable pulse generator (IPG) inductively powered at 430 MHz. Notches are intentionally applied to the incident power, which are replicated to precisely control the timing of the output pulses. Fabricated in a 180-nm CMOS process, the concise circuitry occupies a pad-included footprint of 850 μm × 450 μm and achieves a quiescent current consumption of 950 nA. To reduce the form factor, 401-457 MHz MedRadio-band is utilized to realize the induction link. The finalized assembly achieves one of the smallest dimensions (4.6 mm × 7.0 mm) for near-field IPGs with the Rx coil size of 4.5 mm × 3.6 mm. Codesign of the rectifier and Rx coil accommodates the possible resonant frequency drifts in biological tissues. In the benchtop measurement, a 430-MHz Tx coil is demonstrated to operate the IPG at 4.5 and 4 cm proximities in the air and through water, respectively. An in vivo experiment has been performed, in which the IPG was implanted on the hindlimb muscle belly of an anesthetized rat with the connective tissue and skin sutured. The electrical stimuli induced the isolated ankle flexion at specific strengths and rates, and the experiment complies with the specific absorption rate regulations. This work shows the potential for applications requiring stringent form factors and high sensitivities.
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