MMP-11 as a biomarker for metastatic breast cancer by immunohistochemical-assisted imaging mass spectrometry

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Journal Article
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2019, 411 (3), pp. 639 - 646
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10.1007_s00216-018-1365-3.pdfPublished Version8.29 MB
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© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. MMP-11 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family (MMPs) which are overexpressed in cancer cells, stromal cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The MMP protein family encompasses zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), facilitating the breakdown of the basal membrane and matrix connective tissues. This function is believed to be important in cancer development and metastasis. This paper investigated a gold nanoparticle-based immunohistochemical assay to visualise the distribution of MMP-11 in human breast cancer tissues from eight patients with and without metastases by employing laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The expression of MMP-11 was increased and more heterogeneous in metastatic specimens compared to non-metastatic tumour samples. These findings demonstrate that imaging breast tumours by LA-ICP-MS may be a useful tool to aid the prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. As an example, samples of two patients are presented who were diagnosed with matching characteristics and grades of breast cancer. Although both patients had a similar prognosis and treatment, only one developed metastases.
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