A nitrogen, sulphur dual-doped hierarchical porous carbon with interconnected conductive polyaniline coating for high-performance sodium-selenium batteries

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Journal Article
Energy Storage Materials, 2019, 19 pp. 251 - 260
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© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Sodium-selenium (Na-Se)battery has been emerging as a new rechargeable energy storage system with high capacity, low cost and high rate capability. However, the shuttling of polyselenides from the cathode to the anode causes dramatic capacity decay, severely impeding their practical applications. Herein, we report a combinational strategy of nitrogen and sulphur dual-doped hierarchical porous carbon with interconnected conductive polyaniline (PANI)coating to incorporate Se as stable cathodes (i-PANI@NSHPC/Se)for Na-Se batteries. Ex situ characterizations and density functional theory (DFT)calculations demonstrate that the i-PANI@NSHPC/Se cathode can provide both physical diffusion barrier and strong chemical affinity for polyselenides. In addition, the interconnected conductive polyaniline network enhances the conductivity for electrons and ions. With this strategy, the i-PANI@NSHPC/Se cathode delivered a high reversible capacity of 617 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 0.2C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.013% per cycle and an excellent rate capability at 20 C. Importantly, stable cycling performances were achieved with high capacities at different Se areal mass loadings (1.2, 2.3, 3.5 mg cm−2). This work could provide an efficient approach for developing Na-Se batteries with high active material mass loading, high rate capacity and long cycle life.
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