8-Chloroadenosine induces apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells through the activation of the unfolded protein response

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Redox Biology, 2019, 26
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© 2019 The Authors Infiltration of leukocytes within the vessel at sites of inflammation and the subsequent generation of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, are key characteristics of atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid is a potent oxidant that reacts readily with most biological molecules, including DNA and RNA. This results in nucleic acid modification and the formation of different chlorinated products. These products have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, owing to their presence in elevated amounts in different inflammatory fluids and diseased tissue, including atherosclerotic lesions. However, it is not clear whether these materials are simply biomarkers, or could also play a role in the development of chronic inflammatory pathologies. In this study, we examined the reactivity of different chlorinated nucleosides with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Evidence was obtained for the incorporation of each chlorinated nucleoside into the cellular RNA or DNA. However, only 8-chloro-adenosine (8ClA) had a significant effect on the cell viability and metabolic activity. Exposure of HCAEC to 8ClA decreased glycolysis, and resulted in a reduction in ATP, with a corresponding increase in the chlorinated analogue, 8Cl-ATP in the nucleotide pool. 8ClA also induced sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress within the HCAEC, which resulted in activation of the unfolded protein response, the altered expression of antioxidant genes and culminated in the release of calcium into the cytosol and cell death by apoptosis. Taken together, these data provide new insight into pathways by which myeloperoxidase activity and resultant hypochlorous acid generation could promote endothelial cell damage during chronic inflammation, which could be relevant to the progression of atherosclerosis.
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