Lung epithelial protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) plays an important role in influenza infection, inflammation, and airway mechanics

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Redox Biology, 2019, 22
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© 2019 Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are a family of redox chaperones that catalyze formation or isomerization of disulfide bonds in proteins. Previous studies have shown that one member, PDIA3, interacts with influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA), and this interaction is required for efficient oxidative folding of HA in vitro. However, it is unknown whether these host-viral protein interactions occur during active infection and whether such interactions represent a putative target for the treatment of influenza infection. Here we show that PDIA3 is specifically upregulated in IAV-infected mouse or human lung epithelial cells and PDIA3 directly interacts with IAV-HA. Treatment with a PDI inhibitor, LOC14 inhibited PDIA3 activity in lung epithelial cells, decreased intramolecular disulfide bonds and subsequent oligomerization (maturation) of HA in both H1N1 (A/PR8/34) and H3N2 (X31, A/Aichi/68) infected lung epithelial cells. These reduced disulfide bond formation significantly decreased viral burden, and also pro-inflammatory responses from lung epithelial cells. Lung epithelial-specific deletion of PDIA3 in mice resulted in a significant decrease in viral burden and lung inflammatory-immune markers upon IAV infection, as well as significantly improved airway mechanics. Taken together, these results indicate that PDIA3 is required for effective influenza pathogenesis in vivo, and pharmacological inhibition of PDIs represents a promising new anti-influenza therapeutic strategy during pandemic and severe influenza seasons.
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