Mangrove phenology and environmental drivers derived from remote sensing in Southern Thailand
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Remote Sensing, 2019, 11 (8)
- Issue Date:
© 2019 by the authors. Vegetation phenology is the annual cycle timing of vegetation growth. Mangrove phenology is a vital component to assess mangrove viability and includes start of season (SOS), end of season (EOS), peak of season (POS), and length of season (LOS). Potential environmental drivers include air temperature (Ta), surface temperature (Ts), sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, sea surface salinity (SSS), and radiation flux (Ra). The Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, MOD13Q1) data over five study sites between 2003 and 2012. Four of the mangrove study sites were located on the Malay Peninsula on the Andaman Sea and one site located on the Gulf of Thailand. The goals of this study were to characterize phenology patterns across equatorial Thailand Indo-Malay mangrove forests, identify climatic and aquatic drivers of mangrove seasonality, and compare mangrove phenologies with surrounding upland tropical forests. Our results show the seasonality of mangrove growth was distinctly different from the surrounding land-based tropical forests. The mangrove growth season was approximately 8-9 months duration, starting in April to June, peaking in August to October and ending in January to February of the following year. The 10-year trend analysis revealed significant delaying trends in SOS, POS, and EOS for the Andaman Sea sites but only for EOS at the Gulf of Thailand site. The cumulative rainfall is likely to be the main factor driving later mangrove phenologies.
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