Nanoparticle- and microparticle-based luminescence imaging of chemical species and temperature in aquatic systems: a review
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Microchimica Acta, 2019, 186 (2)
- Issue Date:
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature. Most aquatic systems rely on a multitude of biogeochemical processes that are coupled with each other in a complex and dynamic manner. To understand such processes, minimally invasive analytical tools are required that allow continuous, real-time measurements of individual reactions in these complex systems. Optical chemical sensors can be used in the form of fiber-optic sensors, planar sensors, or as micro- and nanoparticles (MPs and NPs). All have their specific merits, but only the latter allow for visualization and quantification of chemical gradients over 3D structures. This review (with 147 references) summarizes recent developments mainly in the field of optical NP sensors relevant for chemical imaging in aquatic science. The review encompasses methods for signal read-out and imaging, preparation of NPs and MPs, and an overview of relevant MP/NP-based sensors. Additionally, examples of MP/NP-based sensors in aquatic systems such as corals, plant tissue, biofilms, sediments and water-sediment interfaces, marine snow and in 3D bioprinting are given. We also address current challenges and future perspectives of NP-based sensing in aquatic systems in a concluding section. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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